Intelligence-Led Policing for Law Enforcement Managers | FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin (2022)

October 10, 2019

By Nate Huber, M.S.

Intelligence-Led Policing for Law Enforcement Managers | FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin (1)

Law enforcement faces an ever-evolving threat landscape that requires executives and personnel to identify, prioritize, and mitigate many cross-jurisdictional threats. This effort necessitates updated technology to collect, house, and analyze data. It also calls for training centered on the implementation of programs that enable executives to make the best decisions possible regarding risks.

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To this end, education on the concept of intelligence-led policing (ILP) at the local, state, federal, and international level is essential for dealing with current dangers. Today’s highly globalized and interconnected world has not only helped economies grow and facilitated the ease of global commerce but also allowed threats to morph from individuals into large international networks.

Studies have shown that standard law enforcement practices of reactive policing and rapid response do not alleviate crime.1 The reality of reactive policing is that an incident or some sort of damage already has occurred. Under this model, innocent citizens are injured, and the role of police is to file a report or to investigate and identify the perpetrator, not to keep the harm from happening in the first place.

However, historically law enforcement has served to prevent and reduce crime. To accomplish this goal, agencies must be aware of individual criminals, criminal tradecraft, sociological and economic factors relating to crime, vulnerabilities, and potential targets. A thorough understanding of these factors improves decisions on how best to allocate resources that target and impede criminals before they act.

Intelligence-Led Policing for Law Enforcement Managers | FBI: Law Enforcement Bulletin (2)

Mr. Huber is a supervisory intelligence analyst and instructor at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia.

FBI National Academy Class

The FBI National Academy (NA) is a joint educational program conducted with the University of Virginia for sponsored local, state, federal, and international law enforcement managers.2 Among the courses offered, one centers on teaching police executives ILP and the effective implementation of a related program in any agency. The class, Intelligence Theory and Application for Law Enforcement Managers, focuses on the “definitions, history, and philosophy of law enforcement intelligence, the intelligence cycle, types of law enforcement analysis, best practices in the development and management of law enforcement intelligence units, and innovation in law enforcement intelligence.”3

Students who complete this course receive graduate-level credits and a fundamental understanding of the development of an ILP program. This article’s discussion of ILP is based upon a general overview of the class.

A Different Approach

ILP is a proactive way of thinking in law enforcement. It acts as a business process in which agencies implement policies and practices. They focus on developing priorities built on multiple factors, including intelligence analysis. With these priorities in mind, personnel develop intelligence requirements; begin collection based on these requirements; organize, process, and analyze the collected information; and disseminate the completed analytic product to the customer.

[I]ntelligence-led policing emphasizes analysis and intelligence as pivotal to an objective, decision-making framework that prioritizes crime hot spots, repeat victims, prolific offenders and criminal groups. It facilitates crime and harm reduction, disruption and prevention through strategic and tactical management, deployment, and enforcement.4

The main goal of ILP is to get ahead of threats and criminal behavior by proactively identifying indicators and taking action based upon that knowledge.5

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Intelligence Cycle

In its most basic form, intelligence is information that has gone through a systematic process of collection, evaluation, exploitation, analysis, and synthesis, with the goal of reducing uncertainty and providing decision advantage.

Law enforcement intelligence is “the product of an analytic process that provides an integrated perspective to disparate information about crime, crime trends, crime and security threats, and conditions associated with criminality.”6 The intelligence developed from this process should give recipients the ability to take action and thwart or diminish dangers facing the public.

To implement an ILP program, managers must understand the basics of intelligence and how it is created. Information becomes intelligence via the intelligence cycle. At its fundamental level, the cycle is a structured process in which professionals identify intelligence requirements and gaps, develop a plan for collection and production, carry out collection to fill the gaps, refine and organize the collected information, conduct analysis and synthesis to make judgements, and disseminate the results to decision makers for action.

The process usually does not flow directly from one step to the other, but instead is multidirectional. Planning and direction can touch on every step as circumstances change, emerging gaps require additional data, and leaders’ altered preferences necessitate new distribution procedures.

Requirements

The first step in the process is the identification of collection requirements. These are informational needs outlined by decision-makers and validated by intelligence professionals. For law enforcement personnel, collection requirements should follow the priorities of the department and its executives. If the top concerns are violent gangs and drug trafficking, leaders must communicate that to commanders and intelligence professionals, who then can develop approved intelligence gaps or questions to answer.

Planning and Direction

Once personnel have established departmental priorities and collection requirements, they must create a plan to address the identified issues. This step can include formulating the framework of how the organization will collect against the gaps and what resources it will use to answer the suggested questions. Some potential techniques include querying human sources, witnesses, and liaison contacts; initiating predicated investigations on identified subjects; and conducting physical and electronic surveillance. This also is the stage to discuss types, time frames for development, and dissemination mechanisms of intelligence products.

Collection

After making a plan, the organization begins the collection phase. At this point, leaders must communicate the identified gaps and inquiries to patrol officers, detectives, and intelligence officers. This is crucial to ensure they are aware of these questions and actively collecting information to answer them.

Processing and Organizing

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During and after collection, there likely will be a great deal of raw data for intelligence professionals to review, process, and organize so they can analyze it further and understand its value. They will use commercial software programs to categorize and filter data and link analysis tools to identify trends and patterns.

“The main goal of ILP is to get ahead of threats and criminal behavior by proactively identifying indicators and taking action based upon that knowledge.”

Analysis and Production

Once organized, the data enters the analytical phase, in which intelligence professionals review it and use structured analytic techniques to develop and refute multiple hypotheses based on the collected information. They evaluate sources for reliability, credibility, and relevance and formulate judgments to answer the original questions.

Dissemination

It is not enough to collect information, analyze it, and synthesize it to produce judgments. Decision makers need to receive the intelligence, which must be actionable, aligned with the needs of executives, and timely and specific enough to allow leaders to make informed decisions.

Feedback

Although not an official step within the FBI’s intelligence cycle, feedback is an essential component. Including feedback in the process allows leaders to provide their intelligence professionals with input on the usability of the products and to articulate areas that need improvement or more attention. It places everyone on the same page so analysts and intelligence officers can better focus their assessments on the issues of most interest to executives.

“Including feedback in the process allows leaders to provide their intelligence professionals with input on the usability of the products and to articulate areas that need improvement or more attention.”

Partnerships and the Fusion Process

In today’s globalized world, threats are becoming more asymmetric, cross-programmatic, and decentralized. As a result, law enforcement and the intelligence community must work with private sector partners to identify and proactively deal with emerging threats. Not only can private companies and educational institutions act as tripwires in reporting possible criminal activity but they also can help identify impending risks and vulnerabilities that police may not have the time or resources to observe.

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As stated in the 9/11 Commission Report:

The mandate of the Department of Homeland Security does not end with government; the department is also responsible for working with the private sector to ensure preparedness. This is entirely appropriate, for the private sector controls 85 percent of the critical infrastructure in the nation. Indeed, unless a terrorist’s target is a military or other secure governmental facility, the “first” first responders will almost certainly be civilians. Homeland security and national preparedness therefore often begins with the private sector.7

The intelligence fusion process addresses the same concerns as the need for public-private law enforcement partnerships. States and major urban areas began to create fusion centers throughout 2004 and 2005 as a way to rectify the lack of information and intelligence sharing at all levels of government before the terrorist attacks of 9/11.

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security defines a fusion center as “a collaborative effort of two or more agencies that provide resources, expertise and information to the center with the goal of maximizing their ability to detect, prevent, investigate, and respond to criminal and terrorist activity.”8 These centers allow for the transfer of knowledge and analysis from the federal level down to the state, local, and tribal levels and vice versa.

Other Training Opportunities

Currently, limited opportunities exist for training on ILP tailored to law enforcement executives and managers. In addition to the NA, the Southern Police Institute of the University of Louisville offers a weeklong course on ILP, Northern Arizona University offers an online certificate on the subject, and Farleigh Dickinson University offers several related classes and a graduate certificate through its Master of Administrative Science program.9

Advancement to executive positions in law enforcement is based primarily upon policing experience, such as arrests and prosecutions, and likely will continue to be.10 Once an individual is promoted, much of the training focuses on management skills, legal issues, and expanding diversity. There is little instruction for leaders on the definition of intelligence, the intelligence cycle, what intelligence means, or how to use it. Thus, it is important to highlight ILP training programs so that more agencies might pursue relevant education and eventually integrate intelligence experience into their promotion processes.

Conclusion

The continued growth of threats and crime facing society and the limited resources available to deal with them require police agencies to develop programs focused on preventative crime measures and identification of emerging threats. For too long, American law enforcement has relied on gut intuition and reactive policing to address crime. Intelligence-led policing reverses this mind-set and provides a structured process for anticipatory crime mitigation through the collection and analysis of information.

Law enforcement must do more with less. Instituting ILP will allow departments to establish a process where the end product helps inform decision-making, whether that means deciding what criminal organizations to target or how to allocate resources. Most important, ILP allows agencies to prioritize threats based upon the assessment of current and emerging concerns facing their jurisdictions.

“…it is important to highlight ILP training programs so that more agencies might pursue relevant education and eventually integrate intelligence experience into their promotion processes.”

For questions or additional information, Mr. Huber can be contacted at ndhuber@fbi.gov.

Endnotes

1 Cody W. Telep and David Weisburd, “What is Known About the Effectiveness of Police Practices?,” Open Society Institute, September 2011, 28-29, accessed May 29, 2019, http://johnjay.jjay.cuny.edu/files/Telep_Weisburd.pdf; Cynthia Lum, Christopher S. Koper, and Cody W. Telep, “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 7, no. 1 (March 2011): 6, accessed May 29, 2019, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cody_Telep/publication/226648150_The_Evidence-Based_Policing_Matrix/links/55a6028808aef604aa046e28.pdf; and Cynthia Lum and Daniel S. Nagin, “Reinventing American Policing,” Crime and Justice 46, no.1 (2017), accessed May 29, 2019, https://cebcp.org/wp-content/evidence-based-policing/LumNaginReinventingPolicingOnlineCopy.
2 “National Academy,” FBI.gov, accessed March 26, 2019, https://www.fbi.gov/services/training-academy/national-academy.
3 FBI National Academy, Syllabus for “Intelligence Theory and Application for Law Enforcement Managers.”
4 Jerry H. Ratcliffe, Intelligence-Led Policing, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Routledge, 2016): 5.
5 ILP can be defined as “[t]he collection and analysis of information related to crime and conditions that contribute to crime, resulting in an actionable intelligence product intended to aid law enforcement in developing tactical responses to threats and/or strategic planning related to emerging or changing threats.” See U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, David L. Carter, 2nd ed. (May, 2009): 80, accessed October 2, 2019, https://it.ojp.gov/documents/d/e050919201-IntelGuide_web.pdf; Ibid; and Thomas E. Baker, Intelligence-Led Policing (Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law Publications, 2009): 43.
6 David L. Carter, Law Enforcement Intelligence Operations, 8th ed. (Tallahassee, FL: SMC Sciences, Inc., 2002), quoted in Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies.
7 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11 Commission Report, July 22, 2004, 397-398, accessed March 28, 2019, https://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf.
8 “National Network of Fusion Centers Fact Sheet,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, December 17, 2018, accessed March 26, 2019, https://www.dhs.gov/national-network-fusion-centers-fact-sheet.
9 “Intelligence Led Policing: Turning Theory Into Practice,” University of Louisville Southern Police Institute, accessed March 26, 2019, https://louisville.edu/spi/courses/ce-courses/intell.led.policing.ttpdc; “Undergraduate Certificate–Intelligence-Led Policing,” Northern Arizona University, accessed March 27, 2019, https://nau.edu/online/undergraduate-certificate-intelligence-led-policing; “Master of Administrative Science–Degree Requirements,” Farleigh Dickinson University, accessed April 11, 2019, https://view2.fdu.edu/academics/petrocelli-college/graduate-degrees/administrative-science-mas/degree-requirements; and “Master of Administrative Science–Graduate Certificates,” Farleigh Dickinson University, accessed April 23, 2019, http://view2.fdu.edu/academics/petrocelli-college/graduate-degrees/administrative-science-mas/graduate-certificates.
10 Jerry H. Ratcliffe, Intelligence-Led Policing (Portland, OR: Willan, 2008): 145.

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FAQs

What is the concept of intelligence-led policing? ›

Intelligence-led policing (often shortened to ILP) is a practice that leverages technological advances in both data collection and analytics to generate valuable “intelligence” that can be used to more efficiently direct law enforcement resources to the people and places where they are likely to do the most good.

How is intelligence used by law enforcement? ›

Criminal intelligence analysis permits law enforcement authorities to establish a pro-active response to crime. It enables them to identify and understand criminal groups operating in their areas.

What is a major limitation of intelligence-led approach? ›

Some of the disadvantages argued against using this predicative method of policing includes the argument of limited resources, political pressure, information management, data overload, data quality, and adaptation (Casady, 2011 p.

What is the importance of police intelligence in the solution of crime and criminality? ›

Intelligence analysis aids investigations by helping to target available resources and identifying information gaps to focus the investigation more clearly. It also helps to avoid duplication of effort and prevent straying into areas of no relevance.

What are the key elements of intelligence-led policing? ›

The key elements of ILP include executive commitment and involvement; collaboration and coordination throughout all levels of the agency; tasking and coordination; collection, planning, and operation; analytic capabilities; awareness, education, and training; end-user feedback; and reassessment of the process.

What is intelligence-led policing provide some examples? ›

Intelligence-led policing could lead to hostile confrontations between police and residents. For example, if a car theft occurs in one neighborhood, police might consider everyone walking down a street in that neighborhood a suspect and possibly unnecessarily harass them.

What are the advantages of intelligence-led policing? ›

Intelligence-led policing has been effective in collecting data that helps in a deeper understanding of crime hot spots, the location, details of the place and people that are associated with increased crime.

What are the four key objectives in the transformation of local police agencies into intelligence-led organizations? ›

The transformation of local police agencies into intelligence-led organizations involves four key objectives, they are:
  • The creation of a task and coordination process.
  • The development of core intelligence products to lead the operation.
  • The establishment of standardized training practices.

Why is intelligence critical in law enforcement? ›

Law enforcement intelligence, therefore, is the product of an analytic process that provides an integrated perspective to disparate information about crime, crime trends, crime and security threats, and conditions associated with criminality.”5 The need for carefully analyzed, reliable information is essential because ...

What is the difference between law enforcement and intelligence activity? ›

Traditionally, intelligence agencies collect political and military intelligence for policy makers; law enforcement investigators gather information for prosecutions.

Who invented intelligence-led policing? ›

The origins of intelligence-led policing began in the United Kingdom within the Kent Constabulary in the 1990s as a response to budget cuts and growing trends in property crime. Essentially, the belief at the time was that there were a small number of offenders contributing to the vast majority of property crimes.

What is the importance of intelligence? ›

Intelligence is the ability to think, to learn from experience, to solve problems, and to adapt to new situations. Intelligence is important because it has an impact on many human behaviours.

What are the types of police intelligence? ›

1. Criminal Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders. 2. Internal Security Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.

Why do we need intelligence agencies? ›

Intelligence agencies attempt to identify efforts by other countries to build or acquire such weapons and/or their delivery systems where they violate international law or threaten U.S. interests. On occasion, intelligence agencies participate in actions to prevent such activities from taking place.

Which country first started using intelligence-led policing? ›

Intelligence-led policing (ILP) is a policing model built around the assessment and management of risk. Intelligence officers serve as guides to operations, rather than operations guiding intelligence. Calls for intelligence-led policing originated in the 1990s, both in Britain and in the United States.

What is the basis of intelligence-led policing quizlet? ›

What is ILP? A business model and managerial philosophy where data analysis and crime intelligence are pivotal to an objective decision making framework that facilitates crime and problem reduction, disruption and prevention through strategic management and effective enforcement.

What do you think are the areas covered by intelligence? ›

Areas covered include intelligence collection, the intelligence cycle, and also topics such as counterintelligence and cyber intelligence.

What are the relationships among community policing problem oriented policing and intelligence-led policing? ›

Problem-oriented policing emphasizes gathering, analyzing, and sharing information that can be integrated into community policing efforts; intelligence-led policing emphasizes solving neighborhood disorder problems that may contribute to fear of crime or crime itself.

What is a seizure in law? ›

Seizure occurs when the government or its agent removes property from an individual's possession as a result of unlawful activity or to satisfy a judgment entered by the court. courts and procedure.

What are policing strategies? ›

Policing strategies have varying goals including crime prevention, effective use of police resources, or suspect location. Rigorous research can determine which strategies are the most effective in various circumstances. NIJ-supported researchers are involved in evaluating and developing policing strategies.

What is the difference between intelligence and investigation? ›

“Investigations” are about finding hard facts about something that has happened in order to prove it, whereas “intelligence” is about assessing a range of information to form assumptions about what is most likely to be the case, without any need to prove anything.

How does intelligence-led policing reduce crime UK? ›

Rather than reacting to events as they happen, intelligence-led policing uses the knowledge already acquired to determine crime trends and patterns, and criminal activities in progress, and uses that body of information to influence the directions the police go in targeting particular individuals, activities, ...

What is a grass eater in criminal justice? ›

As defined by the Knapp Report, those police officers who "aggressively misuse their police powers for personal gain" are meat-eaters, while "grass-eaters simply accept the payoffs that the happenstances of police work throw their way" (p. 4).

What is an example of strategic intelligence? ›

Strategic Cyber Intelligence

The data at this level should be evidence-based but can also include informed projections, including what the adversaries might do once your defenses are in place. A briefing provided to a corporate board or C-suite executive is an example of strategic cyber intelligence.

What is the primary method of predictive policing? ›

Predictive policing involves using algorithms to analyze massive amounts of information in order to predict and help prevent potential future crimes. Place-based predictive policing, the most widely practiced method, typically uses preexisting crime data to identify places and times that have a high risk of crime.

Which level of intelligence would a state police agency fall under? ›

Level 3 intelligence characterizes the majority of law enforcement agencies in the US? Law enforcement at Level 1 includes police agencies that produce tactical and strategic intel for internal consumption? Problem-oriented policing seeks to control crime through the study of problems?

What are the six steps of the intelligence process? ›

The intelligence cycle is one of active collaboration and consists of six steps: requirements, planning and direction, collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production, and dissemination.

What is the principles of intelligence? ›

Therefore, the central mission of intelligence is to solve various problems in their natural and social environments in order to survive and thrive. This means that intelligence is ultimately about the ability to self-discover knowledge and patterns from a world full of uncertainties and infinite possibilities.

What is the most important step in intelligence cycle? ›

Analysis is thus the most important part of the intelligence cycle. The essence of the analytical process lies in the individual analyst.

What is the contribution of intelligence to crime? ›

Many criminologists have written about the relationship between intelligence and crime, often finding an inverse relationship between the two. That is, criminologists have found individuals with a below-average IQ are more likely to commit a criminal offense than higher-IQ individuals.

What is strategic intelligence in policing? ›

Strategic intelligence examines crime patterns and crime trends for. management use in decision making, resource development, resource. allocation, and policy planning. While similar to crime analysis, strategic. intelligence typically focuses on specific crime types, such as criminal.

What is the rule on qualification of intelligence personnel? ›

Intelligence officers must be United States citizens and already enlisted in a military branch. They must have completed basic training and gone through the series of training courses, tests and graduate programs that are required for intelligence officers.

What is DCI in law enforcement? ›

The Division of Criminal Information (DCI) is responsible for the collection, storage and dissemination of information that will assist criminal justice and law enforcement agencies in the performance of their duties.

What does NCIC stand for? ›

The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is a national criminal justice information. system linking criminal (and authorized noncriminal) justice agencies located in the 50 states, the.

How can intelligence be used to track criminals? ›

Intelligence analysis aids investigations by helping to target available resources and identifying information gaps to focus the investigation more clearly. It also helps to avoid duplication of effort and prevent straying into areas of no relevance.

What is hot spot policing? ›

Hot spots policing strategies focus on small geographic areas or places, usually in urban settings, where crime is concentrated. Through hot spots policing strategies, law enforcement agencies can focus limited resources in areas where crime is most likely to occur.

What is zero tolerance policy in policing? ›

A zero tolerance strategy consists of stopping, questioning, and frisking pedestrians or drivers considered to be acting suspiciously and then arresting them for offenses when possible, typically for such low-level offenses as possessing marijuana.

What are the examples of intelligence? ›

Here are the eight types of intelligence explained one by one.
  • Logical-mathematical intelligence. ...
  • Linguistic intelligence. ...
  • Spatial Intelligence. ...
  • Musical Intelligence. ...
  • Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence. ...
  • Intrapersonal Intelligence. ...
  • Interpersonal Intelligence. ...
  • Naturalistic intelligence.

Which intelligence is most important? ›

It used to be that cognitive intelligence was the king of the hill in terms of importance. Then emotional intelligence showed up. But now Cornell University's professor of human development, Robert J. Sternberg, says "successful intelligence" likely matters more than all the other intelligence types you've heard about.

Why is intelligence important in leadership? ›

Intelligence allows leaders to evaluate others' opinions and hypothetically place them into the plan and see if they fit in. Using valuable inputs that work out for the better often boosts employee morale and allows for better efficiency.

What is intelligence led policing provide some examples? ›

Intelligence-led policing could lead to hostile confrontations between police and residents. For example, if a car theft occurs in one neighborhood, police might consider everyone walking down a street in that neighborhood a suspect and possibly unnecessarily harass them.

Why is intelligence important in policing? ›

Intelligence is crucial for the police as we need as much information as possible to get a clear idea of what's going on, so that we can safeguard individuals and / or prosecute perpetrators wherever possible.

What do intelligence police do? ›

Intelligence is making use of information from a variety of sources to support local and national crime investigations. Information can come from members of the public, victims, witnesses, suspects, community sources and specialist police intelligence operatives to build a picture of criminal activity.

What are the three main branches of the intelligence community? ›

Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments.

Who is No 1 Intelligence Agency? ›

1. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), USA. The CIA is primarily focused to provide intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States and it also plays a major role in maintaining dominance of USA over the world.

What is intelligence service meaning? ›

Intelligence, or intelligence services, comprises state agencies that collect, analyse, and disseminate information related to threats to national security. This tasks a wide variety of organisations, such as military intelligence, police intelligence, foreign and domestic intelligence.

Why is intelligence critical in law enforcement? ›

Intelligence is critical for decisionmaking, planning, strategic targeting, and crime prevention. Law enforcement agencies depend on intelligence operations 3 Page 11 on all levels; they cannot function effectively without collecting, processing, and using intelligence.

Why is intelligence important to national security? ›

Intelligence can provide insights not available elsewhere that warn of potential threats and opportunities, assess probable outcomes of proposed policy options, provide leadership profiles on foreign officials, and inform official travelers of counterintelligence and security threats.

What is the difference between law enforcement and intelligence activity? ›

Traditionally, intelligence agencies collect political and military intelligence for policy makers; law enforcement investigators gather information for prosecutions.

What are the types of police intelligence? ›

1. Criminal Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders. 2. Internal Security Intelligence – refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.

What is the contribution of intelligence to crime? ›

Many criminologists have written about the relationship between intelligence and crime, often finding an inverse relationship between the two. That is, criminologists have found individuals with a below-average IQ are more likely to commit a criminal offense than higher-IQ individuals.

What is strategic intelligence in policing? ›

Strategic intelligence examines crime patterns and crime trends for. management use in decision making, resource development, resource. allocation, and policy planning. While similar to crime analysis, strategic. intelligence typically focuses on specific crime types, such as criminal.

What are the 6 steps of the intelligence cycle? ›

The intelligence cycle is one of active collaboration and consists of six steps: requirements, planning and direction, collection, processing and exploitation, analysis and production, and dissemination. The cycle is circular in nature and the movement between the steps is fluid.

What is the main mission of intelligence? ›

The Intelligence Community's mission is to collect, analyze, and deliver foreign intelligence and counterintelligence information to America's leaders so they can make sound decisions to protect our country.

What are the three main branches of the intelligence community? ›

Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments.

What is the rule on qualification of intelligence personnel? ›

Intelligence officers must be United States citizens and already enlisted in a military branch. They must have completed basic training and gone through the series of training courses, tests and graduate programs that are required for intelligence officers.

What do you think are the areas covered by intelligence? ›

Areas covered include intelligence collection, the intelligence cycle, and also topics such as counterintelligence and cyber intelligence.

What is a grass eater in criminal justice? ›

As defined by the Knapp Report, those police officers who "aggressively misuse their police powers for personal gain" are meat-eaters, while "grass-eaters simply accept the payoffs that the happenstances of police work throw their way" (p. 4).

What are the basic principle of intelligence operations? ›

Intelligence consists of the collection, analysis, evaluation, and dissemination of information for 'positive' intelligence and counterintelligence and the conduct of Special Activities (covert action).

What is the difference between investigation and intelligence? ›

“Investigations” are about finding hard facts about something that has happened in order to prove it, whereas “intelligence” is about assessing a range of information to form assumptions about what is most likely to be the case, without any need to prove anything.

What is the difference between information and intelligence police? ›

So, what's the difference between Information and Intelligence? Information is essentially raw data (lacking context or analysis). Intelligence is collated processed information (often from multiple sources).

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